Obesidade infantil: principais causas e como prevenir

O avanço dos casos de obesidade infantil no Brasil é tido por muitos especialistas como o reflexo de uma epidemia. A doença tem crescido bastante entre pessoas de todas as faixas etárias — e, infelizmente, as crianças não ficaram de fora disso.

Não está convencido? Segundo pesquisas coordenadas pelas faculdades de Educação Física, Psicologia e Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (USP), os números cresceram cerca de 110% para os jovens nos últimos dez anos (um reflexo da infância), e o sobrepeso atinge uma a cada três crianças brasileiras, de acordo com dados obtidos em julho de 2018.

De fato, a obesidade infantil é um problema sério, e está atingindo todas as camadas da população. Mas, afinal, quais são as causas dessa doença? Como podemos prevenir o seu aparecimento? Continue a leitura e tire as suas principais dúvidas sobre o assunto!

O que é a obesidade

Em suma, a obesidade é caracterizada por um grande sobrepeso, que faz com que o indivíduo tenha uma taxa altíssima de gordura em seu corpo. O índice de peso saudável é medido atualmente pelo IMC (Índice de Massa Corpórea), um cálculo que envolve o peso e a altura dos pacientes.

Entre outros riscos, a obesidade pode trazer:

  • o desenvolvimento de doenças cardíacas;

  • problemas ósseos;

  • um aumento dos níveis de colesterol na corrente sanguínea;

  • maior probabilidade de desenvolvimento da diabetes;

  • o aumento da pressão arterial.

Por isso é tão importante garantir que as crianças mantenham um peso saudável, para evitar o surgimento desses e de outros problemas relacionados à doença.

As principais causas da obesidade infantil

Assim como acontece com os adultos, as causas da obesidade infantil podem ser bastante variadas, tendo fatores genéticos, ambientais ou mesmo uma soma de ambos.

Quando há uma influência genética para a doença, ela é normalmente caracterizada pela hereditariedade. Por isso, crianças com pais acima do peso ou obesos têm mais chances de desenvolver esse problema.

Já a causa ambiental se refere a fatores como o estilo de vida levado pela criança e a alimentação fornecida a ela. Atualmente, há uma sedentarização excessiva desse grupo, e uma predileção por alimentos industrializados — mais práticos, mas muito menos saudáveis e cheios de sódio, gorduras e outros componentes nocivos.

Como prevenir o aparecimento desse problema

Embora a predisposição genética contribua com o problema, facilitando o surgimento da obesidade infantil, é importante ressaltar que os cuidados preventivos são iguais para todas as crianças, já que mesmo os que têm o fator genético podem se manter com um peso saudável se os devidos cuidados forem tomados.

O principal cuidado está na alimentação oferecida para a criança. Ela deve ser bastante equilibrada e ter mais alimentos naturais e caseiros. Pratos coloridos e balanceados (com frutas, vegetais, grãos e cereais) são imprescindíveis, além de oferecer carboidratos de qualidade — preferencialmente, com farinhas integrais.

Também é fundamental o incentivo a prática de atividades físicas, seja na forma de esportes, seja de brincadeiras. O mais importante é estar sempre em movimento, para acelerar o metabolismo e queimar as calorias necessárias, evitando a obesidade.

Enfim, já deu para perceber que não podemos negligenciar a obesidade infantil, não é mesmo? Com números cada vez mais preocupantes, essa doença se tornou um problema de saúde pública, portanto, deve ser tratada com seriedade e um grande enfoque na prevenção.

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